Controversy over causes and the moment of failure Fall “Barbarossa”
On June 22nd, 1941 German Army attacked Soviet Union and in this way the operation »Barbarossa« started. A plan of this operation had been prepared for many months and was signed by Hitler on December 18th, 1940. Wehrmacht was meant to defeat Soviet Army in a rapid campaign and reach Archangielsk-Volga line. The operation was never accomplished. Participants of these events, as well as historians and publicists after war, listed many different circumstances of this failure and attempted to find the answer to two key questions: „When?” and „Why?” the plan failed. There were many theories developed until the present day, e.g. snow and freeze which stopped Germans near Moscow in December, mud which paralyzed movement on the front line in the autumn, Hitler’s wrong decision to conquer Ukraine before attacking Moscow, losing plenty of precious time during the Balkan operation. The author of the article compares these contradictory theories, estimates their credibility and tries to find his own explanation of »Barbarossa« operation’s failure.