Libertarianism in view of chosen rights and axiological categories
Libertarianism is one of the most intriguing and, at the same time, controversial political doctrines. It is a politico-economic philosophy of individualism. Libertarianism is also described as legitimate heir of the 19th century liberalism and an extreme version of liberalism in general. It is said that there are two factions of libertarian thought: minarchism and anarchism. The representatives of minarchism claim that “the only proper function of government is to protect individuals from aggression.” For that reason, they are advocates of “night watchman” state. However, the anarchists think that the police and court functions can better be delivered on the market, that is why government can be eliminated. This article presents the libertarians’ point of view on individual and collective rights. It is an attempt to answer the question which right is the most important in libertarian thought. Moreover, it explains how libertarianism treats the idea of equality, accounting for the difference between equality before the law and equality of position. Finally, it describes Nozick’s Theory of justice, which is representative for libertarianism. The above reflections may help to reveal the influence of libertarianism on the shape of modern individualism.